Lexicon Industrial Connectors

Source: ZVEI

Adapter connector A fixed or free connector (attachment) to permit electrical connection between two or more connectors (see connectors) where direct connection is mechanically impossible.
Attachment There is to distinguish between:
- Fixed connector for attachment to a rigid surface, e.g. rack, unit, panel, board, equipment;
- Float mounting connector, i.e. a fixed connector with mounting means permitting movement to facilitate alignment with the mating connector;
- Free connector for attachment to the free end of a wire or a cable;
- Free coupler connector that mates with a free connector in a cable-to-cable application.
Attenuation in fibre optics The reduction of optical signal power between two points of an optical transmission path. It is caused mainly by dispersion and by losses in connectors and splices (splice connection, insertion loss). It is expressed as attenuation coefficient A in dB/km.
Barrier breakdown voltage The voltage required rupturing a barrier resistance.
Barrier resistance A barrier is an undesirable substance on the contact surface, in its properties different from such of the contact material. The barrier resistance is caused by such a barrier, contact area resistance, barrier breakdown voltage.
Bayonet coupling See coupling types.
Bifurcated contact A flat contact element with a lengthwise slot, the two arms of which apply contact force in the same direction
Blade contact strip Fixed connector (attachment) with blade contacts in a linear arrangement.
Breaking load In plug-in devices that may be separated under load, the maximum allowable load (current) to be interrupted.
Butting connector A connector in which connection is achieved between non-penetrating contacts and maintained by axial pressure.
Cable In contrast to a wire, a flat cable or a ribbon cable, a multiconductor cable is suitable for a solid laying. Cables are permitted to be layed inside rooms, outside, outside in earth and in water. According to their conditions of use, e.g. laying in earth or in a rough industrial environment, the cables are provided with thicker insulations and a thicker sheath. Insulation and sheath materials are of high quality. In all cases cables are provided with a sheath made of plastic material or of rubber or with an additional metallic sheath.
Cable outlet A part of a connector or an accessory consisting of a rigid housing for attachment to the connector body. It may incorporate provisions for a strain relief cable damp, for sealing, and for terminating screens to provide shielding to electrical interference. It may be straight or angled.
Cable screen clamp A cable damp to terminate the cable screen.
Characteristic values Specified values for the identification of components.
Circular connector A connector which is basically cylindrical and has a mating face with a basically circular periphery.
Clearance distance The shortest distance between two conductive elements through the air. See VDE 0110.
Climatic characteristic values Generic term for climatic characteristic values, as e.g. for high and low temperatures, tropical climate, high air humidity (see clamp heat), low air pressure, atmospheric influences (see industrial atmosphere). Climatic conditions for tests are layed down in IEC 68, IEC 60512, DIN EN 60512 and DIN 40040.
Clip connection (DIN 41611 part 4) A solderless electrical connection made by pressing the conductor of a stripped wire against a metallic clip post by means of a resilient clip, which is placed with a special tool. Clip and clip, post result combined with the stripped wire in the clip connection. The stripped wire is positioned to the dip. When moving the clip onto the Post, conductor, dip, and post become connected. Several dip connections can be made to one post. The clip connection can only be removed by destroying the clip. An international standard for the clip connection is not under consideration.
Coaxial connector Connector to terminate a coaxial cable or rigid or semi-rigid coaxial lines. A coaxial connection is affected by mating a coupler and a plug.
Compatible connectors Two connectors are compatible when they are intermountable, intermateable and of identical performance.
Conductance Contact materials are of different capability to conduct the electric current. Conductance is the reciprocal quantity to resistance.
Conductor resistance Electrical resistance of a conductor, determined by its length and cross-section and by the conductance of the conductor material.
Connection slot (IEC 60352-3, -4 ) The specially shaped opening in an insulation displacement termination suitable to displace the insulation of a wire and to ensure a gas-tight connection between the termination and the conductor(s) of the wire.
Connector A component which terminates conductors for the purpose of providing connection and disconnection to a suitable mating component. Connectors are operating facilities, which at correct use shall not inserted or withdrawn life or under load (in contrast to plug-in devices). Depending on the attachment they are classified as fixed or free connectors. A connector consists of the connector housing and the contact elements. The housing includes the contact holder and the contact retainer, if applicable.
Connector description Specified design of a connector within a connector family.
Connector family A connector family includes connectors having similar characteristics. The fitting dimensions are specified in the standard for the connector type. Similar connectors having the same design but different sizes are also designated as a connector family.
Connector housing Part of a connector which accommodates the contact holder and the contacts.
Connector style A particular connector within a connector type, e.g. rectangular, flange-mounting.
Connector type Connector within a particular sub-family, e.g. edge-socket connector.
Connector with assessed quality A connector which is produced and tested according to a quality assessment procedure. Such connectors are particularly in use in the commercial, the military or the space travels area.
Connector with contact protection A connector having contacts (male or female) which are arranged contact-proof against the housing edge of the counter connector.
Connector, female Connector with contacts in a linear arrangement.
Damp heat Tests under temperature and damp conditions. Measuring methods and testing procedures according to 1EC 60512-11-3, and -11-12 (DIN EN 60512-11-3 and -11-12 under consideration).
Derating curve The graphic representation of the current-carrying capacity of a component dependent on the ambient temperature. It is to be read which currents can be carded simultaneously under a specified ambient temperature through all contacts without the upper limit temperature being exceeded.
Direct insertion Takes place with an edge-socket connector, i.e. a one-piece printed board connector into which the edge of a printed board is inserted to make contact directly between the edge-board contacts and the connector contacts, indirect insertion.
Dynamic stress General term describing conditionings such as vibration, acceleration, shock, drops etc.
Electrical data Generically for electrical characteristics, e.g. rated voltage, contact resistance, overvoltage category etc.
Electrilical contact According to VDE 0660 the situation caused by the current carrying contact of two contact parts at their contact areas.
Electromagnetic interference As far as connectors are concerned, undesirable electromagnetic interference of the cables to be connected or of the environment is prevented by shielding cable outlet. Shielded connectors normally provide means to connect the screens of attached cables.
Environmental conditions Generic term regarding environmental influences having an effect upon connectors: temperature, humidity, bedewing, air pollution etc.
- An environmental stable connector is protected against high humidity, overtemperature or pollution;
- Connectors are immersion resistant when they withstand an immersion into a specified water depth;
- Fire-proof connectors are flame resistant for a short time under specified conditions;
- Gas-tight connectors are provided with a seal for a specified gas-tightness.
Filter connector Connector with means for protection against certain frequencies in order to suppress interference signals conducted by the attached cable.
Free-switching Mechanical or circuitwise provision through which a voltageless insertion and withdrawal automatically is effected.
Fresnel loss In fibre optics the attenuation of the optical signal caused by reflections on boundaries.
Grid According to DIN 40801 grid denotes the recurring distance of centrelines on which contacts, mounting holes etc. of multicontact connectors are located. Typical grid values for printed board connectors are 2,54 mm (0,1"), 1,27 mm (0,05"), and 0,635 mm (0,025") respectively the hard metric values 2,5 mm, 2,00 mm, 1,25 mm, 0,635 mm, and 0,5 mm.
Hermaphroditic contact A contact which is intended to mate with an identical contact. The contact element is neither to be designated as male or as female.Housing and accessories The housing serves the purpose of the mechanical protection of all connector parts and of the safety against contact of electrical parts. It can be made of plastic material or of metal with an insulating holder. More functions of the housing and the accessories may be: locking;
- polarisation;
- coding;
- electrical shielding;
- sealing;
- strain relief.
There are different contact elements available for the application of specific connection methods, such as soldered connections and solderless connections according to IEC 60352 and DIN EN 60352.
Housing and acessories The housing serves the purpose of the machanical protection of all connector parts and of the safty against contact of electrical parts. It can be made of plastic material or of metal with an insulating holder. More functions of the housing and the accessories may be:
- locking;
- polarisation;
- coding;
- electrical shielding;
- sealing;
-strain relief.
There are different contact elements available for the application of specific connection methods, such as soldered connections and solderless connections according to IEC 60352 and DIN EN 60352
Housing seal Seal
IDC Insulation Displacement Connections
Indirect insertion Is to be performed by use of a two-piece printed board connector to serve as a board-to-board connector. One piece is usually attached to the motherboard or a mounting frame, the other piece to the edge of the daughter board; direct insertion.
Industrial atmosphere A general term describing an environment contaminated by gases containing sulphur, chlorine, nitrogen, oxide etc. Such gas mixtures are specified in various documents for testing connectors with respect to immunity against corrosion. Testing procedures and measuring methods according to IEC 60512-11-7 (DIN EN 60512-11-7 under consideration).
Insertion loss In fibre optics the loss in power due to the insertion of a connector, a splice or another device in an optical transmission system. When connecting identical fibre optics loss may be caused by incorrect adjustment, Fresnel's reflection loss, contamination etc. When connecting different fibre optics under well adjustment, the connection loss may be caused by different optical parameters. In general loss is directional.
Insertion or withdrawal force The force required fully inserting or withdrawing a set of mating components without the effect of a coupling, locking or similar device. Test according to IEC 60512-13-2 (DIN EN 60512-13-2 under consideration).
Insulation Non-conductive layer or cover to separate and to protect against access of voltage carrying parts.
Insulation body Part of a connector, mostly identical with the contact holder.
Insulation co-ordination The mutual correlations of insulation characteristics of electrical equipment taking into account the expected microenvironment and other influencing stresses.
Insulation displacement connection (ID connection) A solderless electrical connection made by inserting a single unstripped wire into a precisely controlled slat in an insulation displacement termination, such that the sides of the slot displace the insulation of the wire and deform the conductor of a solid wire or the strands of a stranded wire to produce a gas-tight connection. The combination of the conductor crosssection and the termination shall be compatible. A typical application of ]D connections in the field of connectors is the termination of flat multicore (ribbon) cables with round conductors. The correct position of the wires to the ID terminations is a basic requirement for good reliable ]D connections. Using a suitable tool all contacts of a connector can simultaneously connected with the ribbon cable in one step.
Insulation displacement termination (ID termination) A termination designed to accept a wire for the purpose of establishing an insulation displacement connection.
Insulation group Deprecated, overvoltage category, degree of contamination.
Insulation material group Classification of insulation materials according to their CTI-values (comparative figures regarding the formation of creepage distances). The insulation material groups 1, 11, Ilia and IIIb are in use.
Insulation materials In connectors only plastics are used as insulation materials. Their choice depends on the thermal and mechanical requirements for the connector. Both thermoplastic and duroplastic materials have been employed successfully.
Insulation piercing connection A solderless electrical connection made by suitable piercing elements (e.g. lances, tips or sharp edges) which pierce the insulation of a wire and provide for electrical contact by deforming or penetrating the conductor. precise positioning of the conductors with respect to the contacts is a prerequisite for this type of connection, which enables all wires of a cable to be terminated in one working step.
Insulation protection code (IP code) A marking system to notify the protective degree of a housing against access to dangerous parts, ingress by solid substances or by water.
Insulation resistance The resistance of the insulation between two conductive elements, in particular, the resistance between two contacts or between a contact and a metallic housing or shield. Testing procedures and measuring methods according to IEC 60512-3-1 (DIN EN 60512-3-1 under consideration).
Lever locking A mechanical locking device operated by actuating a lever; designed to hold two mated connectors together. Typically, the lever can only be locked if the two connectors are correctly mated.
Limit temperatures The upper and lower limit temperatures with in which no degradation of materials occurs. They enclose the operating temperature range.
- Lower limit temperature: the lowest permissible temperature in which a connector or a plug-in device is allowed to be operated.
- Upper limit temperature: the highest permissible temperature in which a connector or a lug-in device is allowed to be operated. This temperature includes the selfheating (comprising contact heating) and the ambient temperature.
Locking rotation locking, spindle locking, lever locking.
Locking contacts Contacts featuring locking lances or other resilient retaining elements, which lock behind shoulders in the contact cavity of the connector insert when the contact with its conductor connected, has been inserted fully. When mating, the locking lances transmit the contact mating force to the insert. Such contacts are of the front-release type or whereas contacts kept in place by a contact retainer in the connector insert must be released from the rear: rearrelease contacts.
Low frequency connector According to IEC low frequency connectors are fit for use with frequencies less than 4 MHz.
Lower category temperature Minimal permissible temperature for the operation of a connector, specified by the manufacturer.
Mating cycles Mechanical operation of connectors and plug-in devices by insertion and withdrawal. One mating cycle comprises one insertion and one withdrawal operation.
Mechanical data Generically for mechanical characteristics, e.g. protection system, insertion or withdrawal force mechanical operation, vibration etc.
Mechanical operation Number of mating cycles prior to abrasion of the conductive contact surface and which do not result in a significant rise of the contact resistance. Measuring methods and testing procedures according to IEC 60512-9-1 (DIN EN 60512-9-1 under consideration).
Mixed header Printed board connector with more than one type of contact, e.g. blade contacts and coaxial contacts andlor optical fibre contacts, in order to connect both power and signal lines with one device.
Multi-mode fibre Optical fibre through which light may travel in various modes. Because the various modes travel at various speeds, the effect of dispersion limits the usable bandwidth andlor the usable length of the fibre.
Nominal current The effective value of the current, which is permitted to flow through all contacts of a connector simultaneously in consideration of the connector test category and its self-heating. Limit current limit temperature.
Nominal voltage A suitable rounded value of a voltage, which characterises a component.
Non-reconnectable connector A connector, which is so designed, that a connected flexible cable would become unserviceable when detaching it from the connector.
Operating temperature range Range between upper and lower temperature limits that can be utilised in an application.
Operating voltage Voltage which may be permanently applied between specified contacts or between terminals andlor ground.
Optical fibre A dielectric conductor for light, the core of which consists optically transparent material with low attenuation (quartz or transparent plastic) and which has a cladding with a lower index of refraction than the core, thus providing total reflection at the boundary. Optical fibres are used to transmit signals at high rates and without electromagnetic interference. The transmission may be single-mode or multi-mode.
Opto-electronic receiver Unit to convert optical signals into electrical signals. It consists of a photo diode with optical fibre and plug, a noiseless amplifier and electronic circuits for signal preparing. lf possible, all components of the receiver are combined as a receiver module.
Opto-electronic transducer Opto-electronic transmitter
Opto-electronic transmitter Device for the conversion of electrical signals into optical signals. It comprises a light emitting diode (laser diode or luminescence diode as transmitter diode) with optical fibre, connector and driver and other electronic components. Usually the main components of the transmitter are combined to a sub-module (transmitter module).
Orientation A system providing alternative polarisation to prevent cross-mating of similar components when, for instance, used on the same equipment.
Overvoltage category Co-ordination of an electrical operating facility to the expected overvoltage. Overvoltage categories 1, 11, Ill, and IV are in use.
Plug In optical fibres a component for easy detaching and again composing of two optical fibres. Normally the insertion loss of a plug is higher than this of a splice connection. The term "plug" is also used in the undefinable every day linguistic usage instead of "connector", e.g. for power plug, antenna plug, HF- adapter plug etc.
Plug connection An electrical plug connection consists of two connectors, i.e. of at least two contact elements. All further parts like housings, contact holders, contact retainers etc. are of secondary function.
Plug-in device Operating facilities which at correct use are permitted to be inserted or withdrawn life or under load (in contrast to connectors). The earthing contact has to pre-mate during insertion and to retard during withdrawal of the plug-in device (pre-mating contact).
Polarisation Features on mating connectors to prevent incorrect mating.
Pollution degree A numeral characterising the expected pollution of the microenvironment. Pollution degrees 1, 2, 3, and 4 are in use. Co-ordination with creepage and clearance distances.
Pre-mating contact A connector having pre-mating contacts shall be used where (depending on protection requirements, e.g. for the earthing conductor) it is necessary that one or more connector contacts make contact before or break contact after all other contacts of the component.
Press-in connection A solderless electrical connection made by inserting a compliant or a solid (press-in termination into a plated-through hole of a printed board. Compliant press-in terminations compensate for tolerances of the hole diameter and minimise mechanical stresses for the printed board. This is mainly important for multilayer backplanes and their connectors when both having a small grid. Gas-tight areas are generated between the press-in zone of the termination and the wall of the plated-through hole.
Press-in termination A termination having a specially shaped section suitable to provide for a (press-in connection into a plated-through hole of a printed board without following soldering. There are two types of press-in terminations:
- Solid press-in termination having a solid press-in zone. The forces necessary to provide for the press-in connection are generated by the deformation of the platedthrough hole of the printed board into which the solid press-in termination is inserted;
- Compliant press-in termination having a compliant press-in zone. The forces necessary to provide for the press-in connection are generated by the deformation of the compliant press-in zone of the press-in termination.
Printed board The term includes printed boards with conductive patterns on one or on both sides and multilayer boards. There are plated-through holes for axial soldered connections, for compliant or solid press-in connections, and solder pads for surface mount technology.
Printed board connector A connector specifically designed to facilitate connections to printed boards. There are onepiece connectors for direct insertion and two-piece connectors for indirect insertion.
Protection system(protection level) -insulation protection code Range of protection of housing against access to dangerous parts, ingress of solid foreign matters andlor water. The protection range is proved by standardised test methods.
Protective insulated connector (class II) Connector having a double or a reinforced insulation to ensure a protection against unintentional contact.
Pull decoupling Coupling device which allows the quick separation of two connectors when an axial force on the cable, a lanyard, or similar element exceeds a specified value. Pull decoupling is typical for cases where connectors must be quickly separated in an emergency, in weapon systems, or during crash tests.
Pull-off coupling coupling types
Push-on contact A contact with which a connection is achieved by axial force, separating being restricted by friction, e.g. flat push-on contact according to DIN 46244 and DIN 46247.
Quick-disconnect coupling coupling types
Rack and panel connector One of two mating fixed connectors (attachment) intended to provide a connection between a unit and its mounting rack. It is usually provided with an alignment device to ensure correct mating. It normally has no coupling device and is mated by the movement between the unit and the rack.
Rating values, electrical Such values are:
- Rated voltage: The value of voltage assigned by the manufacturer to the component and to which operation and performance characteristics are referred;
- Rated impulse voltage: An impulse withstand voltage value assigned by the manufacturer to the component. Characterising the specified capability of its insulation against transient overvoltages. It is the basis for determining the clearance distances;
- Rated current: A current value assigned by the manufacturer, which the connector or a plug-in device can carry continuously (without interruption) and simultaneously through all its contacts without the upper limit temperature being exceeded;
- The making and/or breaking capacity of a plug-in device is the capacity which this device is able to switch under specified conditions;
- Test voltage is that voltage a connector or a plug-in device is able to withstand under specified conditions without dielectric breakdown or flashover.
Rectangular connector A connector which is basically rectangular and has a basically rectangular mating face.
Reference voltage (deprecated, rated values: rated voltage)
Reflection coefficient In coaxial lines the voltage quotient of the reflected to the incident wave.
Resilient contact A contact element with elastic properties to provide a force to its mating part.
Reverse connector Two-piece connector, from which the resilient contact strip is not attached to the voltage carrying side of the equipment (wiring side), but to the voltage-less side, i.e. the printed board side.
Ribbon cable connector Connector to terminate a ribbon cable having round conductors by insulation displacement connections.
Rotation locking A device for mechanical coupling of two connectors by rotation after inserting.
Seal A barrier against the ingress of contaminants and moisture. Seals can be classified as follows:
- Barrier seal between connector housing and insert, and between insert and contacts;
- Housing seal between the housings of two mated connectors;
- Cable seal between cable outlet and cable jacket;
- Discrete wire seal between a single wire and the housing.
- Interfacial seal between the faces of two mated connectors.
Shielding attenuation Ratio of received to transmitted signal.
single-mode fibre Optical fibre through which light can be transmitted only in one mode, the basic mode. The fibre radius must be between 2 pm and 8 pm. Single-mode fibres have very low attenuation losses.
Smart card connector Device for contacting chip cards.
Soldered connection An electrical connection made by soldering. It is a limited detachable connection technique. Modern soldering methods, e.g. flow soldering, permit the simultaneous fully automatic soldering of all components of a printed board. Included is the soldering of all printed board connectors having solder pins into the holes of the printed board. Alternatively now connectors are available for surface mount technology, where the connector with ifs flat terminal points is held to solder pads on the printed board. The electric connections and in the normal case the mechanical fixing of the connector are performed by simultaneous re-flow soldering of all components.
Spindle locking Locking of the two parts of a set of connectors by one or more screws, which usually have grooves or a toggle to facilitate the operation.
Splice connection A permanent connection of two optical fibres made by fusing or by gluing two fibre ends.
Spring clamp connection A solderless electrical connection made by clamping a single stripped wire to the connection part of a contact by a spring. The connection can only be detached by releasing the spring. Several spring damp connections can be combined in one housing made of insulation material.
Spring contact (resilient contact) Contact element of a connector, e.g. a (resilient contact strip, in contrast to a solid blade contact, e.g. in a blade contact strip.
Srew connection In a screw connection the stripped wire is clamped to the termination of the connector by a screw. This clamping screw may act both in the longitudinal axis of the conductor (axial clamping screw) and transverse to the conductor and may be loosened in a simple way.
Strain relief clamp An accessory or a part of a connector to grip the wire to provide strain relief and absorb mechanical stress, which would otherwise be transmitted to the termination.
Strain relief slot The specially shaped opening of an insulation displacement termination where the beams on each side of the slot provide for strain relief.
Surface mount technology (SMT) Method to fix and to connect components (SIVID, surface mounted devices) to the surface of a printed board without use of plated-through holes, usually made by re-flow solde-ring.
Terminal A part of a component which provides a re-usable connection.
Termination techniques Methods for connecting a wire to an electro-mechanical component, e.g. solderless connections according to IEC 60352-... or DIN EN 60352-... respectively, such as crimped, dip, wrapped-, press-in-, insulation displacement-, spring clamp- and insulation piercing connections, or screwed and soldered connections.
Test voltage rating values, electrical
Threaded coupling coupling types
Tuning fork contact A resilient contact with a shape similar to that of a tuning fork, the two arms of which apply > contact force in opposite directions.
Upper category temperature limit temperatures
Wire core Wires are used as single wires or pairs or they are formed to a cable consisting of several wires (cores). Wires to be connected to connectors are mainly single wires or pairs, cables to be connected to connectors are mainly flexible cables, flat cables, ribbon cables, plastic sheathed cables, and coaxial cables. They may be provided with an insulation cover, an electrical shielding, and a sheath for protection of the cores.
Wire range The range of wire diameters and wire cross-sections, which is compatible with the dimensions of the contact's connection part, contact size.
Withdrawal force insertion or withdrawal force
Wrap post A termination generally rectangular with sharp corners made to accept a wrapped connection.
Wrapped connection A solderless electrical connection made by wrapping a solid conductor around a ->wrap post. The conductor (stripped end of a wire) will be wrapped by a wrapping tool around the sharpedged post under controlled mechanical tension. This results in a gas-tight connection between post and conductor. The wrapping process may be carded out using hand-driven tools or semi- or fully automatic machines. Two types of wrapped connections are in use:
- Modified wrapped connections. The wire insulation is wrapped around at least three corners of the wrap post;
- Non-modified wrapped connection. The complete wrap consists of the conductor (stripped end of the wire).
Zero insertion force connector A connector designed to eliminate the insertion or withdrawal forces during mating and unmating e.g. a keylock connector. Also called ZIF connector.
ZIF connector zero insertion force connector